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Convention Between Canada and Sweden for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income

E102416 - CTS 1997 No. 32

The Government of Canada and the Government of Sweden, desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, have agreed as follows:

Article 1

Persons Covered

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

Taxes Covered

  1. The existing taxes to which the Convention shall apply are:
    1. in the case of Canada:

      the income taxes imposed by the Government of Canada under the Income Tax Act,

      (hereinafter referred to as “Canadian tax”);

    2. in the case of Sweden:
      1. the National income tax, including the sailors’ tax and the withholding tax on dividends;
      2. the income tax on non-residents;
      3. the income tax on non-resident artistes and athletes; and
      4. the municipal income tax;

        (hereinafter referred to as “Swedish tax”).

  2. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the taxes referred to in paragraph 1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of substantial changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

Article 3

General Definitions

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:
      1. the term “Canada” used in a geographical sense, means the territory of Canada, including:
        1. any area beyond the territorial seas of Canada which, in accordance with international law and the laws of Canada, is an area within which Canada may exercise rights with respect to the seabed and subsoil and their natural resources;
        2. the seas and airspace above every area referred to in clause (A) in respect of any activity carried on in connection with the exploration for or the exploitation of the natural resources referred to therein;
      2. the term “Sweden” means the Kingdom of Sweden and, when used in a geographical sense, includes the national territory, the territorial sea as well as other maritime areas over which Sweden, in accordance with international law, exercises sovereign rights or jurisdiction;
    1. the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean, as the context requires, Canada or Sweden;
    2. the term “person” includes an individual, an estate, a trust, a company, a partnership and any other body of persons;
    3. the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
    4. the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
    5. the term “competent authority” means:
      1. in the case of Canada, the Minister of National Revenue or his authorized representative;
      2. in the case of Sweden, the Minister of Finance, his authorized representative or the authority which is designated as a competent authority for the purposes of the Convention;
    6. the term “tax” means Canadian tax or Swedish tax, as the context requires;
    7. the term “national” means:
      1. any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;
      2. any legal person, partnership and association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;
    8. the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State.
  2. As regards the application of the Convention at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Convention applies.

Article 4

Resident

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means:
    1. any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature; however, the term “resident of a Contracting State” does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State;
    2. that State or a political subdivision or local authority thereof or any agency or governmental body of any such State, subdivision or authority.
  2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:
    1. he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
    2. if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
    3. if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;
    4. if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.
  3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to settle the question by mutual agreement. In the absence of such agreement, such person shall be deemed not to be a resident of either Contracting State for the purposes of Articles 6 to 21 inclusive and Article 23.

Article 5

Permanent Establishment

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment’ means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
  2. The term “permanent establishment” includes especially:
    1. a place of management;
    2. a branch;
    3. an office;
    4. a factory;
    5. a workshop; and
    6. a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other fixed place of business relating to the exploration for or the exploitation of natural resources.
  3. A building site or construction or installation project constitutes a permanent establishment only if it lasts for more than twelve months.
  4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:
    1. the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
    2. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
    3. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
    4. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
    5. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;
    6. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs (a) to (e) provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.
  5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person - other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies - is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.
  6. An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.
  7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

Income from Immovable Property

  1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, buildings, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.
  3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property and to income from the alienation of such property.
  4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7

Business Profits

  1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on or has carried on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.
  2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.
  3. In the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed those deductible expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment including executive and general administrative expenses, whether incurred in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.
  4. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.
  5. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.
  6. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8

Shipping and Air Transport

  1. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.
  2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 and of Article 7, where there is a substantial operation of a ship or aircraft during a taxation year by an enterprise of a Contracting State between places within the other Contracting State, that other State may tax the profits from such operation.
  3. With respect to profits derived by the air transport consortium Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) the provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply, but only to such part of the profits as corresponds to the participation held in that consortium by AS Aerotransport (ABA), the Swedish partner of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS).
  4. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall also apply to profits referred to in those paragraphs derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from its participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.
  5. For the purposes of this Article,
    1. the term “profits” includes:
      1. gross receipts and revenues derived directly from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic, and
      2. interest on sums generated directly from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic provided that such interest is incidental to the operation;
    2. the term “operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic” by an enterprise, includes:
      1. the charter or rental of ships or aircraft,
      2. the rental of containers and related equipment, and
      3. the alienation of ships, aircraft, containers and related equipment,

      by that enterprise provided that such charter, rental or alienation is incidental to the operation by that enterprise of ships or aircraft in international traffic.

Article 9

Associated Enterprises

  1. Where
    1. an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
    2. the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

    and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any income which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the income of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

  2. Where a Contracting State includes in the income of an enterprise of that State - and taxes accordingly - income on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the income so included is income which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of tax charged therein on that income. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other. The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply after the expiry of the time limits provided in the national laws of the State requested to make the adjustment.

Article 10

Dividends

  1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State the tax so charged shall not exceed:
    1. 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company that controls directly at least 10 per cent of the voting power, or that holds directly at least 25 per cent of the capital, in the company paying the dividends;
    2. notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (a), 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the dividends are paid by a non-resident owned investment corporation that is a resident of Canada to a beneficial owner that is a resident of Sweden and that controls directly at least 10 per cent of the voting power, or that holds directly at least 25 per cent of the capital, of the corporation paying the dividends; and
    3. 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.

    The provisions of this paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

  3. The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares, mining shares, founders’ shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.
  4. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.
  6. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing a Contracting State from imposing on the earnings of a company attributable to permanent establishments in that State, a tax in addition to the tax which would be chargeable on the earnings of a company which is a resident of that State, provided that the rate of such additional tax so imposed shall not exceed 5 per cent of the amount of such earnings which have not been subjected to such additional tax in previous taxation years. For the purpose of this provision, the term “earnings” means the profits attributable to such permanent establishments in that State (including gains from the alienation of property forming part of the business property, referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 13, of such permanent establishments) in accordance with Article 7 in a year and previous years after deducting therefrom:
    1. business losses attributable to such permanent establishments (including losses from the alienation of property forming part of the business property of such permanent establishments) in such year and previous years;
    2. all taxes chargeable in that State on such profits, other than the additional tax referred to herein;
    3. the profits reinvested in that State, provided that where that State is Canada, the amount of such deduction shall be determined in accordance with the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the computation of the allowance in respect of investment in property in Canada, and any subsequent modification of those provisions which shall not affect the general principle hereof; and
    4. five hundred thousand Canadian dollars ($500,000) or its equivalent in Swedish currency, less any amount deducted:
      1. by the company, or
      2. by another company related thereto from the same or a similar business as that carried on by the company

    under this subparagraph (d); for the purposes of this subparagraph (d) a company is related to another company if one company directly or indirectly controls the other, or both companies are directly or indirectly controlled by the same person or persons, or if the two companies deal with each other not at arm’s length.

  7. The provisions of paragraph 6 shall also apply with respect to earnings derived from the alienation of immovable property in a Contracting State by a company carrying on a trade in immovable property, whether or not it has a permanent establishment in that State, but only insofar as these earnings may be taxed in that State under the provisions of Article 6 or paragraph 1 of Article 13.
  8. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, dividends arising in a Contracting State and paid to an organisation that was constituted and is operated in the other Contracting State exclusively to administer or provide benefits under one or more pension, retirement or other employee benefits plans shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned State provided that:
    1. the organisation is the beneficial owner of the shares on which the dividends are paid, holds those shares as an investment and is generally exempt from tax in the other State;
    2. the organisation does not own directly or indirectly more than 5 per cent of the capital or 5 per cent of the voting stock of the company paying the dividends; and
    3. the class of shares of the company on which the dividends are paid is regularly traded on an approved stock exchange.
  9. For the purposes of paragraph 8, the term “approved stock exchange” means:
    1. in the case of dividends arising in Canada, a Canadian stock exchange prescribed for the purposes of the Income Tax Act;
    2. in the case of dividends arising in Sweden, a Swedish stock exchange or other market place authorized under Swedish law; and
    3. any other stock exchange agreed in letters exchanged between the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

Article 11

Interest

  1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.
  3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting Sate who is the beneficial owner thereof shall be taxable only in that other State to the extent that such interest:
    1. is a penalty charge for late payment;
    2. is paid by the central bank of a Contracting State; or
    3. is paid with respect to indebtedness resulting from the sale or furnishing on credit by a resident of that other State of any equipment, merchandise or services, except where the sale or furnishing is made, or the interest is paid, between associated enterprises within the meaning of subparagraphs (a) or (b) of paragraph 1 of Article 9.
  4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2:
    1. interest arising in a Contracting State and paid in respect of indebtedness of the government of that State or of a political subdivision or local authority thereof shall, provided that the interest is beneficially owned by a resident of the other Contracting State, be taxable only in that other State;
    2. interest arising in Sweden and paid to a resident of Canada shall be taxable only in Canada if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or a credit extended, guaranteed or insured by the Export Development Corporation;
    3. interest arising in Canada and paid to a resident of Sweden shall be taxable only in Sweden if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or a credit extended, guaranteed or insured by the Exportkreditnämnden; and
    4. interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State which was constituted and is operated exclusively to administer or provide benefits under one or more pension, retirement or other employee benefits plans shall not be taxable in the first-mentioned State provided that:
      1. the resident is the beneficial owner of the interest and is generally exempt from tax in the other State; and
      2. the interest is not derived from carrying on a trade or a business or from a related person.
  5. The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures, as well as income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from money lent by the laws of the State in which the income arises. However, the term “interest” does not include income dealt with in Article 8 or Article 10.
  6. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  7. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
  8. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 12

Royalties

  1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.
  3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2,
    1. copyright royalties and other like payments in respect of the production or reproduction of any literary, dramatic, musical or other artistic work (but not including royalties in respect of motion picture films nor royalties in respect of works on film or videotape or other means of reproduction for use in connection with television broadcasting); and
    2. royalties for the use of, or the right to use, computer software or any patent or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience (but not including any such information provided under a rental or franchise agreement),

    arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State who is the beneficial owner thereof shall be taxable only in that other State.

  4. The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright, patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process or other intangible property, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience, and includes payments of any kind in respect of motion picture films and works on film, videotape or other means of reproduction for use in connection with television.
  5. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  6. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
  7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 13

Capital Gains

  1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such a fixed base may be taxed in that other State.
  3. Gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State.
  4. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of:
    1. shares (other than shares listed on an approved stock exchange in the other Contracting State) forming part of a substantial interest in the capital stock of a company which is a resident of that other State the value of which shares is derived principally from immovable property situated in that other State; or
    2. a substantial interest in a partnership, trust or estate, established under the law in the other Contracting State, the value of which is derived principally from immovable property situated in that other State,

    may be taxed in that other State. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “immovable property” includes the shares of a company referred to in subparagraph (a) or an interest in a partnership, trust or estate referred to in subparagraph (b) but does not include any property, other than rental property, in which the business of the company, partnerships trust or estate is carried on.

  5. Gains from the alienation of any property, other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.
  6. The provisions of paragraph 5 shall not affect the right of a Contracting State to levy, according to its law, a tax on gains from the alienation of any property derived by an individual who is a resident of the other Contracting State and has been a resident of the first-mentioned State at any time during the six years immediately preceding the alienation of the property.

Article 14

Independent Personal Services

  1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State unless he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities. If he has or had such a fixed base, the income may be taxed in the other State but only so much of it as is attributable to that fixed base.
  2. The term “professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15

Dependent Personal Services

  1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18 and 19, salaries, wages and other remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.
  2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:
    1. the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the calendar year concerned, and
    2. the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and
    3. the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.
  3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State, may be taxed in that State. Where a resident of Sweden derives remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard an aircraft operated in international traffic by the air transport consortium Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), such remuneration shall be taxable only in Sweden.

Article 16

Directors’ Fees

Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or a similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17

Artistes and Sportsmen

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.
  2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsman himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised.
  3. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if it is established that neither the entertainer or the sportsman nor persons related thereto, participate directly or indirectly in the control or in the profits of the person referred to in that paragraph.

Article 18

Pensions and Annuities

  1. Pensions, including disbursements under the social security legislation, and annuities arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in the State in which they arise.
  2. Pensions, including disbursements under the social security legislation, and annuities shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State.
  3. Notwithstanding anything in this Convention:
    1. war pensions and allowances (including pensions and allowances paid to war veterans or paid as a consequence of damages or injuries suffered as a consequence of a war) arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that other State to the extent that they would be exempt from tax if received by a resident of the first-mentioned State; and
    2. alimony and other similar amounts (including child support payments) arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in that other State, but the amount taxable in that other State shall not exceed the amount that would be taxable in the first-mentioned State if the recipient were a resident thereof.

Article 19

Government Service

    1. Salaries, wages and similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
    2. However, such salaries, wages and similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:
      1. is a national of that State; or
      2. did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.
  1. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to salaries wages and similar remuneration in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20

Students

Payments which a student, apprentice or business trainee who is, or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State, a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.

Article 21

Other Income

  1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that State.
  2. However, if such income is derived by a resident of a Contracting State from sources in the other Contracting State, such income may also be taxed in the State in which it arises, and according to the law of that State. Where such income is income from an estate or a trust which is a resident of Canada, other than a trust to which contributions were deductible, the tax so charged in Canada shall, provided that the income is taxable in Sweden, not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the income.
  3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property, as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

Article 22

Elimination of Double Taxation

  1. In the case of Canada, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:
    1. Subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the deduction from tax payable in Canada of tax paid in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions - which shall not affect the general principle hereof - and unless a greater deduction or relief is provided under the laws of Canada, tax payable in Sweden on profits, income or gains arising in Sweden shall be deducted from any Canadian tax payable in respect of such profits, income or gains.
    2. Subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the taxation of income from a foreign affiliate and to any subsequent modification of those provisions - which shall not affect the general principle hereof - for the purpose of computing Canadian tax, a company which is a resident of Canada shall be allowed to deduct in computing its taxable income any dividend received by it out of the exempt surplus of a foreign affiliate which is a resident of Sweden.
    3. Where in accordance with any provision of the Convention income derived by a resident of Canada is exempt from tax in Canada, Canada may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on other income, take into account the exempted income.
  2. In the case of Sweden, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:
    1. Where a resident of Sweden derives income which under the laws of Canada and in accordance with the provisions of this Convention may be taxed in Canada, Sweden shall allow - subject to the provisions of the law of Sweden concerning credit for foreign tax (as it may be amended from time to time without changing the general principle hereof) - as a deduction from the tax on such income, an amount equal to the Canadian tax paid in respect of such income.
    2. Where a resident of Sweden derives income which shall be taxable only in Canada according to this Convention, Sweden may, when determining the graduated rate of Swedish tax, take into account the income which shall be taxable only in Canada.
    3. Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (a), dividends paid by a company which is a resident of Canada to a company which is a resident of Sweden shall be exempt from Swedish tax according to the provisions of Swedish law governing the exemption of tax on dividends paid to Swedish companies by subsidiaries abroad.
  3. For the purposes of this Article, profits, income or gains of a resident of a Contracting State which may be taxed in the other Contracting State in accordance with this Convention shall be deemed to arise from sources in that other State.

Article 23

Non-Discrimination

  1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to individuals who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.
  2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities.
  3. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.
  4. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 8 of Article 11, or paragraph 7 of Article 12 apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purposes of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State.
  5. The provisions of paragraph 4 shall not affect the operation of any provision of the taxation laws of a Contracting State:
    1. relating to the deductibility of interest and which is in force on the date of signature of this Convention (including any subsequent modification of such provisions that does not change the general nature thereof); or
    2. adopted after such date by a Contracting State and which is designed to ensure that a person who is not a resident of that State does not enjoy, under the laws of that State, a tax treatment that is more favourable than that enjoyed by residents of that State.
  6. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of a third State, are or may be subjected.
  7. In this Article, the term “taxation” means taxes which are the subject of this Convention.

Article 24

Mutual Agreement Procedure

  1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, address to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident an application in writing stating the grounds for claiming the revision of such taxation.
  2. The competent authority referred to in paragraph 1 shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation not in accordance with the Convention.
  3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention.
  4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention and may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of applying the Convention.

Article 25

Exchange of Information

  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Convention insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by the Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.
  2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:
    1. to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
    2. to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
    3. to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (order public).
  3. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall endeavour to obtain the information to which the request relates in the same way as if its own taxation was involved notwithstanding the fact that the other State does not, at that time, need such information. If specifically requested by the competent authority of a Contracting State, the competent authority of the other Contracting State shall endeavour to provide information under this Article in the form requested, such as depositions of witnesses and copies of unedited original documents (including books, papers, statements, records, accounts or writings), to the same extent such depositions and documents can be obtained under the laws and administrative practices of that other State with respect to its own taxes.
  4. For the purposes of this Article, the Convention shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 2, apply to:
    1. all taxes imposed by the Government of Canada; and
    2. all taxes imposed by the Government of Sweden or its municipalities and county councils.

Article 26

Diplomatic Agents and Consular Officers

  1. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic agents or consular officers under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.
  2. Notwithstanding Article 4, an individual who is a member of a diplomatic mission, consular post or permanent mission of a Contracting State which is situated in the other Contracting State or in a third State shall be deemed for the purposes of the Convention to be a resident of the sending State if he is liable in the sending State to the same obligations in relation to tax on his total income as are residents of that sending State.
  3. The Convention shall not apply to international organizations, to organs or officials thereof and to persons who are members of a diplomatic mission, consular post or permanent mission of a third State or group of States, being present in a Contracting State and who are not liable in either Contracting State to the same obligations in relation to tax on their total income as are residents thereof.

Article 27

Miscellaneous Rules

  1. The provisions of this Convention shall not be construed to restrict in any manner any exemption, allowance, credit or other deduction accorded:
    1. by the laws of a Contracting State in the determination of the tax imposed by that State; or
    2. by any other agreement entered into by a Contracting State.
  2. Nothing in the Convention shall be construed as preventing a Contracting State from imposing a tax on amounts included in the income of a resident of that State with respect to a partnership, trust, or controlled foreign affiliate, in which he has an interest.
  3. Contributions in a year in respect of services rendered in that year paid by, or on behalf of, an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State to a pension plan that is recognized for tax purposes in the other Contracting State shall, during a period not exceeding in the aggregate 60 months, be treated in the same way for tax purposes in the first-mentioned State as a contribution paid to a pension plan that is recognized for tax purposes in that first-mentioned State, provided that:
    1. such individual was contributing on a regular basis to the pension plan for a period ending immediately before he became a resident of the first-mentioned State; and
    2. the competent authority of the first-mentioned State agrees that the pension plan corresponds to a pension plan recognized for tax purposes by that State.

    For the purposes of this paragraph, “pension plan” includes a pension plan created under the social security system in a Contracting State.

  4. For the purposes of paragraph 3 of Article XXII (Consultation) of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, the Contracting States agree that, notwithstanding that paragraph, any dispute between them as to whether a measure falls within the scope of this Convention may be brought before the Council for Trade in Services, as provided by that paragraph, only with the consent of both Contracting States. Any doubt as to the interpretation of this paragraph shall be resolved under paragraph 3 of Article 24 or, failing agreement under that procedure, pursuant to any other procedure agreed to by both Contracting States.

Article 28

Entry into Force

  1. This Convention shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged at Ottawa as soon as possible.
  2. The Convention shall enter into force upon the exchange of instruments of ratification and its provisions shall have effect:
    1. in Canada:
      1. in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place; and
      2. in respect of other Canadian tax for taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place;
    2. in Sweden, in respect of income derived on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place.
  3. The provisions of the Convention of 14th October, 1983 between Canada and Sweden for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital shall cease to have effect:
    1. in Canada:
      1. in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place; and
      2. in respect of other Canadian tax for taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place;
    2. in Sweden:
      1. in respect of income derived on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place; and
      2. in respect of capital tax which is assessed in or after the second calendar year next following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place.
  4. The Agreement dated 21st November, 1929, between Canada and Sweden providing for the reciprocal exemption from income tax on earnings derived from the operation of ships is terminated on the date on which this Convention enters into force.

Article 29

Termination

This Convention shall continue in effect indefinitely but either Contracting State may, on or before June 30 of any calendar year after the year of the exchange of instruments of ratification, give written notice of termination to the other Contracting State and in such event, the Convention shall cease to have effect:

  1. in Canada:
    1. in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the notice is given; and
    2. in respect of other Canadian tax for taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the notice is given;
  2. in Sweden, in respect of income derived on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the notice is given.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.

DONE in duplicate at Stockholm this 27th day of August, 1996 in the English, French and Swedish languages, each version being equally authentic.

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
Lloyd Axworthy

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF SWEDEN
Lena Hjelm-Wallén