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Convention Between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of South Africa for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income

E102407 - CTS 1997 No. 20

THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA,

DESIRING to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income,

HAVE AGREED as follows:

Article 1 - Personal Scope

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2 - Taxes Covered

  1. The existing taxes to which the Convention shall apply are:
    1. in the case of Canada:
      1. the taxes imposed by the Government of Canada under the Income Tax Act, (hereinafter referred to as “Canadian tax”);
    2. in the case of South Africa:
      1. the normal tax;
      2. the non-resident shareholders’ tax; and
      3. the secondary tax on companies;
    3. (hereinafter referred to as “South African tax”).
  2. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

Article 3 - General Definitions

  1. In this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:
    1. the term “Canada” used in a geographical sense, means the territory of Canada, including:
      1. any area beyond the territorial seas of Canada which, in accordance with international law and the laws of Canada, is an area within which Canada may exercise rights with respect to the seabed and subsoil and their natural resources;
      2. the seas and airspace above every area referred to in subparagraph (i) in respect of any activity carried on in connection with the exploration for or the exploitation of the natural resources referred to therein;
    2. the term “South Africa” means the Republic of South Africa and, when used in a geographical sense, includes the territorial sea thereof as well as any area outside the territorial sea, including the continental shelf, which has been or may hereafter be designated, under the laws of South Africa and in accordance with international law, as an area within which South Africa may exercise sovereign rights or jurisdiction;
    3. the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean, as the context requires, Canada or South Africa;
    4. the term “person” includes an individual, an estate, a trust, a company and any other body of persons which is treated as an entity for tax purposes; the term also includes a partnership in the case of Canada;
    5. the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
    6. the term “competent authority” means:
      1. in the case of Canada, the Minister of National Revenue or his authorized representative;
      2. in the case of South Africa, the Commissioner for Inland Revenue or his authorized representative;
    7. the term “national” means:
      1. any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;
      2. any legal person, partnership and association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;
    8. the term “international traffic” means any transport by ship or aircraft operated by a resident of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State.
  2. As regards the application of the Convention by a Contracting State at any time, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has at that time under the law of that State concerning the taxes to which the Convention applies.

Article 4 - Resident

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means:
    1. in the case of Canada,
      1. any person who, under the laws of Canada, is able to tax in Canada by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management, place of incorporation or any other criterion of a similar nature;
      2. Canada or a political subdivision or local authority thereof or any agency or instrumentality of Canada, or subdivision or authority thereof;
    2. in the case of South Africa, any individual who is ordinarily resident in South Africa and any other person which has its place of effective management in South Africa.
  2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:
    1. he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to hint; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
    2. if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if be has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
    3. if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;
    4. if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.
  3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a company is a resident of both Contracting States, then its status shall be determined as follows:
    1. it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which it is a national;
    2. if it is a national of neither of the States, it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which its place of effective management is situated.
  4. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual or a company is a resident of both Contracting States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement endeavour to settle the question and to determine the mode of application of the Convention to such person.

Article 5 - Permanent Establishment

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of a resident of a Contracting State is wholly or partly carried on.
  2. The term “permanent establishment” includes especially:
    1. a place of management;
    2. a branch;
    3. an office;
    4. a factory;
    5. a workshop; and
    6. a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place relating to the exploration for or the exploitation of natural resources.
  3. The term “permanent establishment” likewise encompasses:
    1. a building site, a construction, installation or assembly project or supervisory activities in connection therewith, but only where such site, project or activities continue for a period of more than twelve months;
    2. the furnishing of services, including consultancy services, by a resident through employees or other personnel engaged by the resident for such purpose, but only where activities of that nature continue (for the same or a connected project) within a Contracting State for a period of more than twelve months.
  4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” in respect of a resident of a Contracting State shall be deemed not to include:
    1. the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the resident;
    2. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the resident solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
    3. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the resident solely for the purpose of processing by another person;
    4. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or of collecting information, for the resident;
    5. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the resident, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;
    6. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs (a) to (e) provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.
  5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person - other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies - is acting on behalf of a resident of a Contracting State and has, and habitually exercises, in the other Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the resident, that resident shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that other State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the resident unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.
  6. A resident of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.
  7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6 - Income from Immovable Property

  1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has for taxation purposes in the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources. Ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.
  3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting or use in any other form of immovable property and to income from the alienation of such property.
  4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property used in carrying on a business or in the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7 - Business Profits

  1. The business profits of a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the resident carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the resident carries on or has carried on business as aforesaid, the business profits of the resident may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.
  2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where a resident of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the business profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate person engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the resident and with all other persons.
  3. In the determination of the business profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed those deductible expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment including executive and general administrative expenses, whether incurred in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.
  4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the business profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the business profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary. The method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.
  5. No business profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment of a person by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the person.
  6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the business profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.
  7. Where business profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8 - Shipping and Air Transport

  1. Profits derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.
  2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 and of Article 7, profits derived by a resident of a Contracting State from a voyage of a ship where the principal purpose of the voyage is to transport passengers or property between places in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall also apply to profits referred to in those paragraphs derived by a resident of a Contracting State from its participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.
  4. For the purposes of this Article, profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall include:
    1. profits derived from the rental on a bare boat basis of ships or aircraft used in international traffic; and
    2. profits derived from the use or rental of containers and related equipment;
    if such profits are incidental to the profits to which the provisions of paragraph 1 apply.

Article 9 - Associated Persons

  1. Where:
    1. a resident of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of a resident of the other Contracting State, or;
    2. the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of a resident of a Contracting State and a resident of the other Contracting State,

      and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two persons in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent persons, then any income which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the persons, but, by reason of those conditions, has not so accrued, may be included in the income of that person and taxed accordingly.

  2. Where a Contracting State includes in the income of a resident of that State and taxes accordingly income on which a resident of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the income so included is income which would have accrued to the first-mentioned person if the conditions made between the two persons had been those which would have been made between independent persons, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of tax charged therein on that income. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.
  3. A Contracting State shall not change the income of a person in the circumstances referred to in paragraph 1 after the expiry of the time limits provided in its national laws and, in any case, after five years from the end of the year in which the income which would be subject to such change would, but for the conditions referred to in paragraph 1, have accrued to that person.
  4. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not apply in the case of fraud, wilful default or neglect.

Article 10 - Dividends

  1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if a resident of the other Contracting State is the beneficial owner of the dividends the tax so charged shall not exceed:
    1. except in the case of dividends paid by a non-resident owned investment corporation that is a resident of Canada, 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company which:
      1. controls directly or indirectly at least 10 per cent of the voting power in the company paying the dividends where that company is a resident of Canada;
      2. holds directly at least 10 per cent of the capital of the company paying the dividends where that company is a resident of South Africa;
    2. 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.
    The provisions of this paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company on the profits out of which the dividends are paid.
  3. The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.
  4. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.
  6. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing a Contracting State from imposing on the earnings of a company attributable to a permanent establishment in that State, a tax in addition to the tax which would be chargeable on the earnings of a company which is a national of that State, provided that any additional tax so imposed shall not exceed 5 per cent of the amount of such earnings which have not been subjected to such additional tax in previous taxation years. For the purpose of this provision, the term “earnings” means the profits, including any gains, attributable to a permanent establishment in a Contracting State in a year and previous years after deducting there from all taxes, other than the additional tax referred to herein, imposed on such profits by that State.

Article 11 - Interest

  1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if a resident of the other Contracting State is the beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.
  3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2:
    1. interest arising in Canada and beneficially owned by a resident of South Africa shall be taxable only in South Africa if it is paid:
      1. in respect of indebtedness of the government of Canada or of a political subdivision or local authority thereof;
      2. to the South African Reserve Bank;
    2. interest arising in South Africa and beneficially owned by a resident of Canada shall be taxable only in Canada if it is paid:
      1. in respect of indebtedness of the government of South Africa or of a political subdivision or local authority thereof;
      2. to the Bank of Canada;
      3. in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or a credit extended, guaranteed or insured by the Canadian Export Development Corporation;
    3. interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State which was constituted and is operated exclusively to administer or provide benefits under one or more pension, retirement or other employee benefits plans shall not be taxable in the first-mentioned State provided that:
      1. the resident is the beneficial owner of the interest and is generally exempt from tax in the other State; and
      2. the interest is not derived from carrying on a trade or a business or from a related person; and
    4. interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State who is the beneficial owner thereof shall be taxable only in that other State to the extent that such interest is paid with respect to indebtedness resulting from the sale or furnishing on credit by a resident of that other State of any equipment, merchandise or services, except where the sale or furnishing is made between associated persons within the meaning of subparagraphs (a) or (b) of paragraph 1 of Article 9 or where the payer and the recipient of the interest are associated persons within the meaning of the same subparagraphs.
  4. The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures, as well as income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from money lent by the laws of the State in which the income arises. However, the term “interest” does not include income dealt with in Article 10.
  5. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
  7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 12 - Royalties

  1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if a resident of the other Contracting State is the beneficial owner of the royalties the tax so charged shall not exceed:
    1. 6 percent of the gross amount of the royalties if they are:
      1. copyright royalties and other like payments in respect of the production or reproduction of any literary, dramatic, musical or other artistic work (but not including royalties in respect of motion picture films nor royalties in respect of works on film or videotape or other means of reproduction for use in connection with television broadcasting); or
      2. royalties for the use of, or the right to use, computer software; or
      3. royalties for the use of, or the right to use, any patent or any information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience (but not including any such information provided in connection with a rental or franchise agreement);
    2. 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties in all other cases.
  3. The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright, patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process or other intangible property, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience, and includes payments of any kind in respect of motion picture films and works on film, videotape or other means of reproduction for use in connection with television.
  4. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
  6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 13 - Capital Gains

  1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment of a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise carried on by such resident) or of such a fixed base may be taxed in that other State.
  3. Gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic by a resident of a Contracting State or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State.
  4. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of:
    1. shares (other than shares listed on an approved stock exchange in the other Contracting State) forming part of a substantial interest in the capital stock of a company which is a resident of that other State the value of which shares is derived principally from immovable property situated in that other State; or
    2. a substantial interest in a partnership, trust or estate, established under the law in the other Contracting State, the value of which is derived principally from immovable property situated in that other State, may be taxed in that other State. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “immovable property” includes the shares of a company referred to in subparagraph (a) or an interest in a partnership, trust or estate referred to in subparagraph (b) but does not include any property, other than rental property, in which the business of the company, partnership, trust or estate is carried on. For the purposes of this paragraph, a substantial interest exists when the resident, alone or together with related persons, owns directly. or indirectly at least 25 per cent of the shares of any class of the capital stock of the company or has an interest of at least 25 per cent in the partnership, trust or estate.
  5. Gains from the alienation of any property, other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.
  6. The provisions of paragraph 5 shall not affect the right of a Contracting State to levy, according to its law, a tax on gains from the alienation of any property derived by an individual who is a resident of the other Contracting State and has been a resident of the first-mentioned State at any time during the six years immediately preceding the alienation of the property if the property was held by the individual before he became a resident of that other State.

Article 14 - Independent Personal Services

  1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State unless he has or had a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities. If he has or had such a fixed base, the income may be taxed in the other State but only so much of it as is attributable to that fixed base. For the purposes of this provision, where an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State stays in the other Contracting State for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve-month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, he shall be deemed to have a fixed base regularly available to him in that other State and the income that is derived from his activities that are performed in that other State shall be attributable to that fixed base.
  2. The term “professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.
  3. The third sentence of paragraph 1 shall cease to have effect on the date an Agreement or a Convention, concluded after the date of signature of this Convention, between South Africa and a country that is a member country of the Organisations for Economic Co-operation and Development, takes effect if that Agreement or Convention does not provide for a provision that is comparable to that found in that third sentence.

Article 15 - Dependent Personal Services

  1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18 and 19, salaries, wages and other remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.
  2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:
    1. the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, and
    2. the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, a person who is not a resident of the other State, and
    3. the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the person has in the other State.
  3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by a resident of a Contracting State, shall be taxable only in that State unless the remuneration is derived by a resident of the other Contracting State.

Article 16 - Directors’ Fees

Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or a similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17 - Entertainers and Sportsmen

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.
  2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsman himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised.
  3. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if it is established that neither the entertainer or the sportsman nor persons related thereto, participate directly or indirectly in the profits of the person referred to in that paragraph.
  4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to income derived from activities performed in a Contracting State by a resident of the other Contracting State in the context of a visit in the first-mentioned State of a non-profit organization of the other State, provided the visit is principally supported by public funds.

Article 18 - Pensions and Annuities

  1. Pensions and annuities arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. Pensions and annuities arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may also be taxed in the State in which they arise and according to the law of that State.

Article 19 - Government Service

  1.  
    1. Salaries, wages and similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
    2. However, such salaries, wages or similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:
      1. is a national of that State; or
      2. did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.
  2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to remuneration in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20 - Students

Payments which a student, apprentice or business trainee who is, or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State, a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.

Article 21 - Other Income

  1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that State.
  2. However, if such income is derived by a resident of a Contracting State from sources in the other Contracting State, such income may also be taxed in the State in which it arises, and according to the law of that State. Where such income is income from an estate or a trust, other than a trust to which contributions were deductible, the tax so charged shall, provided that the income is taxable in the Contracting State in which the beneficial owner is a resident, not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the income.

Article 22 - Avoidance of Double Taxation

  1. In the case of Canada, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:
    1. subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the deduction from tax payable in Canada of tax paid in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions which shall not affect the general principle hereof and unless a greater deduction or relief is provided under the laws of Canada, tax payable in South Africa on profits, income or gains arising in South Africa shall be deducted from any Canadian tax payable in respect of such profits, income or gains;
    2. subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the taxation of income from a foreign affiliate and to any subsequent modification of those provisions which shall not affect the general principle hereof for the purpose of computing Canadian tax, a company which is a resident of Canada shall be allowed to deduct in computing its taxable income any dividend received by it out of the exempt surplus of a foreign affiliate which is a resident of South Africa;
    3. where in accordance with any provision of the Convention income derived by a resident of Canada is exempt from tax in Canada, Canada may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.
  2. In the case of South Africa, taxes paid by a resident of South Africa in respect of income taxable in Canada, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, shall be deducted from the taxes due according to South African fiscal law. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed an amount which bears to the total South African tax payable the same ratio as the income concerned bears to the total income.
  3. For the purposes of this Article, profits, income or gains of a resident of a Contracting State which are taxed in the other Contracting State in accordance with this Convention shall be deemed to arise from sources in that other State.

Article 23 - Non-Discrimination

  1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to individuals who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.
  2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which a resident of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on residents of that other State carrying on the same activities.
  3. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.
  4. Companies which are residents of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar companies which are residents of the first-mentioned State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of a third State, are or may be subjected.
  5. In this Article, the term “taxation” means taxes which are the subject of this Convention.

Article 24 - Mutual Agreement Procedure

  1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, address to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident, or if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 23, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national, an application in writing stating the grounds for claiming the revision of such taxation. To be admissible, the said application must be submitted within two years from the first notification of the action which gives rise to taxation not in accordance with the Convention.
  2. The competent authority referred to in paragraph 1 shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation not in accordance with the Convention.
  3. A Contracting State shall not, after the expiry of the time limits provided in its national laws and, in any case, after five years from the end of the taxable period in which the income concerned has accrued, increase the tax base of a resident of either of the Contracting States by including therein items of income which have also been charged to tax in the other Contracting State or increase the tax charged on such income. This paragraph shall not apply in the case of fraud, wilful default or neglect.
  4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention.
  5. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention and may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of applying the Convention.
  6. If any question, difficulty or doubt arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention cannot be resolved or dealt with by the competent authorities as a result of the application of the provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 or 3, these questions, difficulties or doubts may, if the competent authorities agree, be submitted to an arbitration commission. The decisions of the commission shall be binding on the competent authorities. The composition of the commission and the arbitration procedures shall be determined by the competent authorities.

Article 25 - Exchange of Information

  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Convention insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State.
  2. Nothing in paragraph 1 shall be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:
    1. to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
    2. to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
    3. to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).
  3. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall endeavour to obtain the information to which the request relates in the same way as if its own taxation was involved notwithstanding the fact that the other State does not, at that time, need such information. If specifically requested by the competent authority of a Contracting State, the competent authority of the other Contracting State shall endeavour to provide information under this Article in the form requested, such as depositions of witnesses and copies of unedited original documents (including books, papers, statements, records, accounts or writings), to the same extent such depositions and documents can be obtained under the laws and administrative practices of that other State with respect to its own taxes.

Article 26 - Diplomatic Agents and Consular Officers

  1. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic agents or consular officers under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.
  2. Notwithstanding Article 4, an individual who is a member of a diplomatic mission, consular post or permanent mission of a Contracting State which is situated in the other Contracting State or in a third State shall be deemed for the purposes of the Convention to be a resident of the sending State if he is liable in the sending State to the same obligations in relation to tax on his total income as are residents of that sending State.
  3. The Convention shall not apply to international organizations, to organs or officials thereof and to persons who are members of a diplomatic mission, consular post or permanent mission of a third State or group of States, being present in a Contracting State and who are not liable in either Contracting State to the same obligations in relation to tax on their total income as are residents thereof.

Article 27 - Miscellaneous Rules

  1. The provisions of this Convention shall not be construed to restrict in any manner any exemption, allowance, credit or other deduction accorded:
    1. by the laws of a Contracting State in the determination of the tax imposed by that State; or
    2. by any other agreement entered into by a Contracting State.
  2. Nothing in the Convention shall be construed as preventing a Contracting State from imposing a tax on amounts included in the income of a resident of that State with respect to a partnership, trust, or company, in which he has an interest.
  3. Contributions in a year in respect of services rendered in that year paid by, or on behalf of, an individual who is resident of one of the Contracting States or who is temporarily present in that State, to a pension plan that is recognized for tax purposes in the other Contracting State shall, during a period not exceeding in the aggregate 60 months, be treated in the same way for tax purposes in the first-mentioned State as a contribution paid to a pension plan that is recognized for tax purposes in that first-mentioned State, provided that:
    1. such individual was contributing on a regular basis to the pension plan for a period ending immediately before he became a resident of or temporarily present in the first-mentioned State; and
    2. the competent authority of the first-mentioned State agrees that the pension plan generally corresponds to a pension plan recognized for tax purposes by that State.
    For the purposes of this paragraph, “pension plan” includes a pension plan created under the social security system in a Contracting State.
  4. With respect to paragraph 3 of Article XXII of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, the Contracting States agree that, notwithstanding that paragraph, any dispute between them as to whether a measure relating to a tax to which any provision of this Convention applies falls within the scope of this Convention may be brought before the Council for Trade in Services, as provided by that paragraph, only with the consent of the Contracting States.

Article 28 - Entry into Force

  1. Each of the Contracting States shall notify to the other the completion of the procedures required by its law for the bringing into force of this Convention. The Convention shall enter into force on the date of the later of these notifications.
  2. The provisions of the Convention shall apply:
    1. with regard to taxes withheld at source, in respect of amounts paid or credited on or after the first day of the third month next following the date on which the Convention enters into force; and
    2. with regard to other taxes, in respect of taxable years beginning on or after the first day of the third month next following the date on which the Convention enters into force.

Article 29 - Termination

  1. This Convention shall remain in force indefinitely but either of the Contracting States may terminate the Convention through the diplomatic channel, by giving to the other Contracting State written notice of termination not later than 30 June of any calendar year starting five years after the year in which the Convention entered into force.
  2. In such event, the Convention shall cease to have effect:
    1. with regard to taxes withheld at source, in respect of amounts paid or credited after the end of the calendar year in which such notice is given; and
    2. with regard to other taxes, in respect of taxable years beginning after the end of the calendar year in which such notice is given.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.

DONE in duplicate at Toronto, this 27th day of November 1995, in the English and French languages, each version being equally authentic.

Roy MacLaren
For the Government of Canada

Trevor Manuel
For the Government of the Republic of South Africa